plagiarism avoided

taking responsibility for your work (Faculty of Arts, April 1999)

A booklet for students on plagiarism, including techniques for avoiding it.

Faculty of Arts
April 1999

Contents:

  • Note to the Reader
  • Introduction
  • Part 1: What is Plagiarism?
    • Plagiarism Defined - Complete/Reckless Plagiarism
    • Examples
    • Consequences
  • Part 2: The Good News - Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism
    • Research Tips (Index Card/Notebook Method)
    • Internet Research
    • Writing Tips (Citation/Editing)
  • Appendix A: Summary of Documentation Styles
  • Appendix B: UBC Calendar Policy on Plagiarism
  • Appendix C: Further Examples of Plagiarism

 

NOTE:

This document owes a large part of its being to the original booklet Plagiarism: What It Is and How to Avoid It, prepared by Colin Gordon, Peter Simmons and Graeme Wynn. The current booklet was initiated by Associate Dean of Arts Neil Guppy, and was co-authored by Paola Baca and Amy McPhee, both undergraduate students with backgrounds in research at the University of British Columbia. Final edits were done by the Associate Dean of Arts Margery Fee and Research Assistant Keri Damen.

The advice of the following faculty members and students has been invaluable as this booklet was drafted: Gillian Creese, Margery Fee, Jane Flick, Martha Foschi, Chris Friedrichs, Christina Komorski, Paul Krause, Paul Marantz, John Newton, Augustine Park, Alan Richardson, Judy Segal and Graeme Wynn. A special "thank-you" goes out to Judy Brown, whose input has been especially helpful. We have not been able to follow all of the good advice received and some colleagues noted above will continue to have reservations about how certain issues are presented.

This publication is for information only and is not intended as authority in legal proceedings. For legal issues, please refer to the UBC Calendar.

INTRODUCTION

TUUM EST: IT IS UP TO YOU

The UBC motto is clear and succinct: "it is yours"-your education, your future, your accomplishments. You are in charge of your education; and you have a personal responsibility for the work you produce.

This document is about you and your writing, and plagiarism is the central issue. There is no more serious academic offence that you can commit. This booklet is meant to be a resource for familiarising yourself with plagiarism so you can avoid it in your work. In the first part of the booklet, plagiarism is defined, while the second part focuses on strategies for avoiding plagiarism and ideas about effective research and good time management. This guide also offers writing and editing tips which will help to strengthen and support your research. However, these tips are neither definitive nor exhaustive; you are encouraged to learn and use the multitude of research methods available to you.

In the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Joseph Gibaldi notes that "[n]early all research builds on previous research", and "this process is largely responsible for the continual expansion of human knowledge" (104). To compile this guide, we have consulted many different books and guides, and will be acknowledging other authors' words and ideas with the MLA Citation Style, using in-text references which are linked to the Works Cited page at the end of this document. In addition to the Works Cited page, there is a summary of documentation styles (Appendix A), the UBC Calendar official statement on plagiarism (Appendix B), and further examples of plagiarism (Appendix C).

UBC is a university built on scholarship and integrity. Take pride and responsibility for your work-Tuum Est; it is yours.

PART 1: WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?

LISTEN UP! YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

As a member of our University community, you have certain rights. As noted in the University Calendar, you have "the freedom, within the law, to pursue what seem...fruitful avenues of inquiry...to learn unhindered by external or non-academic constraints, [and] to engage in full and unrestricted consideration of any opinion" (39). In other words, you have the freedom to explore and research topics pertinent to your class work and your education.

Your instructors will assign written exercises designed to help you develop scholarship, show that you understand and can apply what you are learning, and share your knowledge and points of view with fellow students. Conducting thoughtful research by allowing yourself time to think, talk, and write about your ideas will result in an interesting and fulfilling learning experience at UBC.

PLAGIARISM DEFINED

According to the UBC Calendar, plagiarism is "a form of academic misconduct in which an individual submits or presents the work of another person as his or her own"(44). Simply put, plagiarism is taking the words or ideas of another person, and submitting them without the proper acknowledgement of the original author.

Plagiarism is the most serious academic offence you can commit. Every person's work is protected by this principle, and therefore your own work should not be plagiarised, just as you should not plagiarise another's work. Plagiarised work is not your own. Plagiarism destroys the integrity of your research and is a misuse of academic freedom.

There are two forms of plagiarism: Complete Plagiarism (bold) and Reckless Plagiarism (equally dishonest but not so bold).

 

I. Complete Plagiarism

The UBC Calendar notes that "complete plagiarism exists when an entire essay is copied from an author, or composed by another person, and presented as original work" (44). Complete plagiarism is bold and blatant. Beginning in grade school, students are made aware that copying is cheating and hence is unethical. Unfortunately, this form of plagiarism persists in university.

Completely plagiarised work can be a copy of material in a published journal article, in a book chapter, from the Internet, from another student, or from another source. In whatever form it takes, the defining characteristic is that the work is not yours. Even if you rewrite the introduction or conclusion, the main premises do not belong to you and even acknowledgement of the author will not render this work your own.

Dovetailing: Submitting the Same Assignment for Two Courses Submitting the same work (presumably your work) for two different assignments is considered plagiarism and will carry the same consequences, even if the two assignments were completed at different institutions. Although this does not involve the intellectual theft that characterises complete or reckless plagiarism, it is an academic impropriety. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for a new project, or if you want to use essays with similar premises for two classes, you need to obtain the permission of all instructors involved. See Appendix C, Example 8.

II. Reckless Plagiarism

The bulk of plagiarism falls into this category. Reckless plagiarism is often the result of careless research, poor time management, and a lack of confidence in your own ability to think critically. Examples of reckless plagiarism include:

  • Taking phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or statistical findings from a variety of sources and piecing them together into an essay (piecemeal plagiarism);
  • Taking the words of another author and failing to note clearly that they are not your own. In other words, you have not put a direct quotation within quotation marks;
  • Using statistical findings without acknowledging your source;
    Taking another author's idea, without your own critical analysis, and failing to acknowledge that this idea is not yours;
  • Paraphrasing (i.e. rewording or rearranging words so that your work resembles, but does not copy, the original) without acknowledging your source;
  • Using footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your own research; and
  • Submitting a piece of work with inaccurate text references, sloppy footnotes, or incomplete source (bibliographic) information.

Words & Ideas

Copyright law states that words, not ideas, are legally protected. However, stealing another author's ideas is still intellectual theft. Plagiarism includes not only appropriating another author's words without acknowledging the author, but also appropriating another author's ideas. To avoid this, you need not only document your sources, but also critically analyse the idea and come up with your own supported view. Someone may have come up with the same idea prior to you, but your work should reflect your personal thoughts and attitudes.

For conscientious students, this type of plagiarism can often be avoided by practising good time management. Give yourself time to properly research your topic, to write and revise your preliminary drafts, and to edit thoroughly before submitting a final copy. Organised research notes will also help you avoid plagiarism. If your notes are unclear, chances are that you will fail to distinguish which material you have researched from another author, and which ideas are your own. The "Research Tips" section of this guide presents two useful methods for organising your notes properly.

If you are not confident about your critical reasoning skills, it is your responsibility to get help from your instructor, and it is your instructor's responsibility to make him/herself available and helpful. Use your professors and TA's as resources to help you develop self-instruction skills; that is, use them to help you to become an independent learner (and thinker).

Common Knowledge And Referencing

Items of common knowledge or obvious fact do not require referencing. Developing good judgement about what is obvious or common knowledge is an important skill to learn. Any information that all authors seem to agree on is likely obvious or common knowledge. For field-specific information, your instructor will prove a valuable resource for helping you to make this decision. When in doubt, it's always better to have a reference. An example of common knowledge occurs in Appendix C, Section 5.

EXAMPLES

The first example shows both complete plagiarism and reckless plagiarism (in the form of paraphrasing). The boldface type indicates the common words that are used in the original, the plagiarised version, and the acceptable version.

ORIGINAL:

From Sharon Venne's journal article "Understanding Treaty 6: An Indigenous Perspective", in Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference, Ed. Michael Ash, Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.

For an understanding of the relationship between the Treaty Peoples and the Crown of Great Britain and later Canada, one must consider a number of factors beyond the treaty's written text. First, the written text expresses only the government of Canada's view of the treaty relationship: it does not embody the negotiated agreement. Even the written versions of treaties have been subject to considerable interpretation, and they may be scantily supported by reports or other information about the treaty negotiations.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

In order to understand the relationship between First Nations Peoples and the government of Canada, one must look beyond the written text of the treaties. First, the written text expresses only the government of Canada's view of the treaty relationship: it does not embody the negotiated agreement. Even the written versions of treaties have been subject to considerable interpretation, and they may be scantily supported by reports or other information about the treaty negotiations.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

Sharon Venne believes that written treaties are insufficient in developing an understanding of the issues between the First Nations Peoples and the government:

The written text expresses only the government of Canada's view of the treaty relationship: it does not embody the negotiated agreement. Even the written versions of treaties have been subject to considerable interpretation, and they may be scantily supported by reports or other information about the treaty negotiations. (173)

This viewpoint, however, has often made researchers disregard the treaties, a dangerous tactic when discussing the issues mentioned above.

The acceptable version credits the original author for the initial idea, and indicates, by indentation, the words that are taken directly from the original text. Information regarding the original text is offered so that readers can find the quotation for themselves. The quotation is followed by the student's evaluative comment and the quoted text is integrated into the essay in an original line of thought.

The second example shows close paraphrasing as a form of plagiarism.

ORIGINAL:

From Lawrence Levine's book Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America, Cambridge, 1986.

Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and Richard III. That the presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim's raft, they try to make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays (Romeo and Juliet and Richard II). Because the production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggest that the identification of "highbrow" theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon.

This last version credits the original author, is set up in an original form, and has quotation marks around a borrowed phrase (from the original book's title). A short description of the reasoning behind Levine's conclusions is placed in a footnote, and the name of the author is given so that readers can refer to the Works Cited page and find the original for themselves. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the original, it expands upon it and places it in the context of the student's work. Also note an alternative style of referencing. The footnote system is used widely in the humanities, and is a very useful form of documentation. In your assignments, you need to be consistent with the documentation style that you use: if you are using in-text citations, you should not have any footnotes, and vice versa.

For more complete examples, see Appendix C.

THE CONSEQUENCES OF COMMITTING PLAGIARISM

Your responsibilities as a student include creating original and accurately cited work. If you fail to do this, the results may be:

1. A failing grade for the assignment.

2. A failing grade for the entire course.

3. Suspension from the university (Note: courses taken at other institutions during a suspension will not receive credit at UBC).

4. A note of unethical conduct placed on your permanent transcript.

Plagiarism is irresponsible and dishonest, and your reputation as a scholar will be irreparably blemished. For more information regarding these consequences, see Appendix B or the UBC Calendar (44).

All plagiarism, whether intentional or not, will result in serious consequences. It is your responsibility to be diligent about avoiding plagiarism.

Instructors who find that one of their students has committed plagiarism will receive support from their faculty and from the university. When a student is suspected of plagiarism, there are a number of steps taken to ensure that all parties involved are treated fairly.

  • The instructor finds the original source of the information and compares it with the student's work
  • The instructor meets with the student to discuss the situation
  • The instructor writes a report for the Head of the Department, who usually forwards it to an Associate Dean of the Faculty
  • This person meets with the student to discuss the allegations and hear the student's explanation
  • If the allegations have merit, then the case is forwarded to the President's Committee on Student Discipline (made up of senior professors of the university)
  • This committee meets with the student to review the allegations, and then makes recommendations to the President
  • If the case of plagiarism is substantiated, the student faces the penalties above

PART 2: THE GOOD NEWS-TIPS ON AVOIDING PLAGIARISM

AVOID PANIC SITUATIONS THAT RESULT IN PLAGIARISED WORK

One of the challenges of university work is learning to understand your personal limits and work habits. No one can properly prepare an assignment in one draft; we all need time to research, write, review, and edit several drafts before submitting a polished work with in-text citations (or endnotes, or footnotes) and an accurate bibliography. Understanding personal limits and work habits will allow you to develop realistic time lines for completing major assignments and research papers.

Avoid putting yourself in a panic situation that could result in plagiarised work:

  • Understand your instructor's expectations
  • Make a careful note of all your deadlines, including those for other courses
  • Ask questions early
  • Do not expect extensions
  • Budget your time wisely

Professors and TA's are aware of the lucrative business that preys upon the panic-stricken student. With the increasing number of Internet sites that buy and sell research papers, and illegitimate tutorial services that will write papers for you, more professors are asking for papers in stages. Setting preliminary deadlines for thesis statements, bibliographies, outlines and first drafts is not only a valuable technique for teaching students good research and writing skills, it also helps to ensure that your final draft is your own work.

If an assignment is properly (and entirely) completed by you, evidence of your work will appear in the form of outlines, notes, rough drafts, and the final copy. Safeguard your own work and never destroy your notes when you hand in your final copy. Likewise, professors keep copies of previous assignments for reference, and they can recognise similarities between new and old ones quickly.

A Note on Research Papers

Instructors, as well as other readers, are not keen to read research papers presenting summaries of secondary sources; instead, they expect reasoned and critical analyses of evidence uncovered by the research process.

There is no single method of producing good work, as long as you and your readers are satisfied with the final product. However, there are several research tips presented below that can help you avoid reckless plagiarism. Whether or not you find these tips useful, they stress the care and responsibility that you must take when you write as well as the importance of having a strategy that works.

RESEARCH TIPS

There are many methods of approaching research. Many disciplines have respected research methods that you must be aware of. To find out more about these methods, consult your professor or TA. There are also numerous books on research methods available at the UBC library, including: The Research Guide for the Digital Age (Education Library, LB2369.B78 1997), Introduction to Library Research (Woodward Library, Z711.2.L58 1993), and The History Student Writer's Manual (Koerner Library, D13.H4147 1998).

A Thought on Research

Judy Brown, a professor in English, told us during the course of our research that she "read[s] with a view to evaluating a student's research skills and his/her ability to use research evidence to support a thesis and an argument coming from the student's own critical thinking on the topic. The research should support the critical thinking; the critical thinking shouldn't be overlaid on the research as a forced afterthought."

When you begin your research, there are ways to go about it that can reduce the chances of unintentional plagiarism. Presented below are two examples that may help you organise your notes so that plagiarism is less likely to occur.

I. The Index Card Method

One effective method to keep track of your research uses index cards to organise your notes and ideas from the quotations and ideas of others. These are easily stored in index card boxes or shoeboxes for future reference. Notes taken in your first year may remain valuable in the future if you intend to pursue a particular area of study.

  • When you begin reading, your first index card should take note of the source.
  • Different academic fields may require different reference styles-in-text citations, footnotes, or endnotes; instructors may want bibliographies in MLA, Chicago Manual, or APA style. When you first receive an assignment-ASK! Get to know the style so that with this knowledge you can write your source information on your index cards in the form your final notes and references will take, and save time in the editing stage.
  • Write the catalogue number and location of the source on the card for future reference. This is also a handy practice if your book is on reserve and you will be returning to the library periodically to consult it. By documenting your sources in this way at the beginning of your research you are creating a working bibliography, which will be an invaluable tool in further research.
  • Separate your ideas carefully. Record one idea only per index card. If the idea is not your own, note the author's last name and the pages for the source of the idea.

II. The Notebook Method

If you prefer to take notes on paper, using notebooks is a good way of keeping your information together. Loose-leaf paper is a bad idea: pages get lost too easily! Notebooks can also be stored for future use, and one is often useful for several research projects, especially if the topics are similar.

  • When you begin your research, use a new page for each source. On the top of the page, write the name of the source, author, publisher, volume, etc, depending on what documentation style you are using. Remember to write down where you found the material (i.e. location and catalogue number) so that if you need to find it again, you will be able to.
  • It is helpful to separate the page into two halves: one for the author's ideas/words and one for your own thoughts. This way, when you go to write the paper, it is easy to see what material is yours and what you have taken from another source. By doing this, the chances of committing unintentional reckless plagiarism will be reduced.


Regardless of what method you use, always distinguish carefully between your own words and ideas and those of others. If you are writing a quotation, enclose it in quotation marks so you will remember to document it accurately in your final draft. If you are paraphrasing, make sure to write down the page number next to the paraphrase so that you know it is not your own idea, and so it is easier to document.

Go the extra mile: pick up information sheets at UBC libraries, and read style manuals.

INTERNET RESEARCH

If you are doing research on the Internet, you may want to begin with reputable web pages and web sources such as those available through the UBC library at http://www.library.ubc.ca.

You can search the UBC Library website for whatever discipline your research is in. For example, if you were researching a topic in Political Science you would find a list of sources the library recommends, such as official government sites, reference sources, or newspaper sites. You can also perform the same kind of search on the World Wide Web with search engines such as Lycos or Infoseek, many of which have features that rate the site based on appropriate content or accuracy.

The Internet is a vast source of useful and useless information. New sites and links are created at an increasingly rapid rate, and it is difficult to keep up with the additional information available at your fingertips. The Internet is a valuable source of government documents, news releases, bibliographic references, statistics, etc.; however, the quality of some available information is also questionable. Be aware of the source of the information and the date of electronic publication or update. For example, if you were researching the changes in Northwest Coast mask making over the past century, the Vancouver Art Gallery or the Museum of Anthropology websites would have valuable information that may prove reliable. Information from Crazy John's European Mask site, last updated in 1995, might not be quite so reliable.

Most reliable information is published by more than one source, so as you progress through your research, the number of times you come across a piece of information is a good indicator of how reliable that information is (although this may not be true for cutting-edge research). When researching, you must think critically about all the sources of information you choose to use-this pertains to articles in journals, books, and other sources, as well as Internet information. A good resource on how to judge the legitimacy of a source is Lilita Rodman's Technical Communication (286-290).

WRITING TIPS

Organise your work in an original manner and prepare a preliminary outline of your ideas. Remember that your instructor is evaluating the probability of your argument and the plausibility of your thesis. Your analytical processes will come through in the clarity of your argument. If you are not confident about your analytical processes, make an appointment with your instructor or TA to discuss your concerns.

As you write, make clear distinctions between your own words/ideas and the words/ideas of others through the use of quotation marks and citations.

I. Citation:

  • If you want to use the references that authors make of other authors that you find during your research, look up the referenced material and produce your own research. Copying someone else's footnotes is still plagiarism, and when looking up footnotes, you may find information that is more useful to your work than the original quotation. However, if you do not have access to the source of the original material, then it is acceptable to use the quoted material, referencing it by the original author, and then stating "as cited in," and then referencing where you found the material (see Appendix C, Section 3).
  • If you use Internet sources, they must be cited and the author(s) of the information must be acknowledged. Style guides are continually changing to address Internet citations. It is no surprise that your best reference for Internet citations, MLA Style, is at http://www.mla.org/main_stl.htm.
  • In addition to books, journals, newspapers, and the Internet, you can examine a wealth of other material for research on any given topic, which can often be difficult or confusing to document:
    • The UBC Library provides an Infosheet on how to cite government publications such as monographs, Statistics Canada serials, census publications, parliamentary reports, parliamentary debates, UN publications, newspaper articles, and electronic sources (see UBC Library: "Citing Government Publications and Microform Titles").
    • The UBC Library's "MLA Style: Getting Started" guides you through the citation of different forms of books, journal articles, and films and videos.

Missing Information? Don't Panic!

If a source is missing information, such as the author's or publisher's name, this does not necessarily mean you should reject the source (especially if it is valuable) nor does it mean you should avoid citation.
Style guides help writers deal with these dilemmas.
When in doubt, give as much information as possible, and consult with your TA or professor for stylistic purposes.

II. Editing:

Always give yourself time to write more than one draft of your work so that you can edit copies for spelling, grammar, style, and referencing. Make sure to proofread and edit your work on paper, rather than directly onto a computer. Many instructors have found that students who edit on-screen miss more mistakes than students who edit on paper do. As you read your work ask yourself questions about content, organisation, and effective/accurate presentation of your research. For example, you should ask yourself:

  • Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own?
  • Is the language (including phrases or rough paraphrases) my own?
  • Is the distinction between my work and the work of others clear and unambiguous?

It is possible to overlook simple errors when you have spent so much time preparing and writing your assignment. This is when it is helpful to have a friend, classmate, or relative look it over. People who know the least about your topic can often be the most helpful. They will tend to ask questions such as:

  • How did you know that?
  • Is that true?
  • Where did you get this fact/piece of information?
  • Where can I get more information about this point?
  • Is this your opinion/idea/analysis?


Your answers to these types of questions will indicate if you have or have not done a proper job of acknowledging your sources. Your answer may be that "this is common knowledge in my field," and therefore the point may not require citation (see "Common Knowledge" 5). However, if the idea is not your own, and it is not common knowledge, you must acknowledge the original source-it is a courtesy to your readers and your responsibility as an author. By doing this you are acknowledging the hard work of the researchers who came before you.

You should not rely on friends, classmates, family, or tutors to proofread or edit your work. It is important that you learn to edit, proofread, and polish your own work.

Take pride in the work that you do at UBC. Your ideas and research are valuable not only to you as a student, but also to the university and to the larger community. You help to create both your future and the future of the community. UBC has an interest in keeping your work safe from plagiarism. Likewise, you are responsible for ensuring that you do not plagiarise another's work. After all, you cannot take pride in work that is not your own.

 

APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF DOCUMENTATION STYLES

MLA STYLE

The MLA style is commonly used in the social sciences and humanities. Often the author-date system is used in which in-text citations are used to direct the reader to your sources listed on the works cited page, hence the link between the in-text citation and the works cited page must be completely clear. However, other systems are available, such as the footnote or endnote systems, in which a number is placed above (superscript) the referenced material. This number refers to a numbered footnote at the bottom of the page or to a numbered endnote at the end of your work. You can find the MLA Handbook at Koerner Library (Reference), call number LB.2369.M63 1995.

Below are some methods of constructing in-text citations (1), footnotes/endnotes (2), and entries in the Works Cited page (3) with examples following each method. Note that Works Cited entries must always be in alphabetical order (they should not be numbered). This guide is not definitive, and as research sources are diverse, it is a good idea to refer to the MLA Handbook. Please note that all punctuation is necessary, and that the bolded text in the examples identifies something that must be placed in the entry exactly as shown (except that it should not be bold). Following each heading is the page number(s) where you can find detailed information in the MLA Handbook.

Book: Single Author/Corporation (109-112, 117)

1. (Author's last name/name of corporation page number)
e.g. (Cruikshank 139)

2. Author's first and last names, Title of the Book (City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year) page number.
e.g. Julie Cruikshank. The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1998) 139.

3. Author's last name, first name/name of corporation. Title the Book. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year.
e.g. Cruikshank, Julie. The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1998.

Government Publication (132-134)

1. (Government and agency page number)
e.g. (Canada Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 20)

2. Government and agency, Title of the Publication. (City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year) page number.
e.g. Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The Inuit. (Ottawa, ON: Supply and Services Canada, 1986) 20.


3. Government and agency. Title of the Publication. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year.
e.g. Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The Inuit. Ottawa, ON: Supply and Services Canada, 1986.

Work in an Anthology/Compilation (117-120)

1. (Author's last name page number)
e.g. (Ricou 296)
2. Author's first and last names, "Title of the Work," Title of the Anthology, ed./comp. first and last names (City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year) page number.
e.g. L.R. Ricou, "No Writing At All Here: Review Notes on Writing Native," Native Writers and Canadian Writing, ed. W.H. New (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1990) 296.
3. Author's last name, first name. "Title of the Work." Title of the Anthology. Ed./Comp./Trans. first and last names. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year.
e.g. Ricou, L.R. "No Writing At All Here: Review Notes on Writing Native." Native Writers and Canadian Writing. Ed. W.H. New. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1990.

Periodical without Continuous Pagination-each issue begins with page 1
(141-142)

1. (Author's last name page number)
e.g. (O'Brien 176)
2. Author's first and last names, "Title of the Article," Title of the Periodical Volume number. Issue number.(year): first page number- last page number.
e.g. Susie O'Brien, "The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism," ARIEL 29. 2. (1998): 159-183.
3. Author's last name, first name. "Title of the Article." Title of the Periodical. Volume number.Issue number (year): first page number- last page number.
e.g. O'Brien, Susie. "The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism," ARIEL 29. 2. (1998): 159-183.

Online Sources (160-167)

1. (Author's last name [if given] page number)]
e.g. (Allen 15)

2. Author's first and last names (if given), Text Title Ed. editor's first and last names (City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, month, year), Title of the Site, online, name of supporting/publishing institution, <full address of the site> date of access.
e.g. Robert C. Allen, The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education in B.C.: An Outcomes Assessment (Vancouver, BC: Publisher?, March, 1996), Robert C . Allen, Department of Economics, University of British Columbia, online, University of British Columbia, <url of site> April 5, 1999.

3. Author's last name, first name (if given). Text Title. Ed. Editor's first and last name. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, month, year Title of the Site. Online. Name of supporting/publishing institution. Date of access <full address of the site>.
e.g. Allen, Robert C. The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education in B.C.: An Outcomes Assessment. Ed. Robert C. Allen. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, March, 1996 Robert C. Allen, Department of Economics, University of British Columbia. Online. University of British Columbia. April 5, 1999 <url of site>.

Note: Online information comes in many forms, and so you need to be very specific about what information you include in the works cited entry. For complete details, see the MLA website www.mla.org/main_stl.htm. For the in-text citation, if there is no author, then cite the name of the text.

APA STYLE

The American Psychological Association also has published a style guide for authors. This style is useful not only in psychology, but also in any field which deals with a significant amount of quantitative data. Again, one documentation style focuses on creating a link between the in-text citation and reference list at the end of the paper, so the connection between the in-text citation and the reference list must be explicit. You can also use the footnote system, for which the notes are placed on a separate page at the end of your document. You can find the APA style manual at Koerner Library (Reference), call number PN.147.A5 1993.

Below you can find a short list of in-text citations (1), footnotes (2), and entries in a reference list (3) in the APA style. Note that the title of your reference page is "Reference List" instead of the MLA's "Works Cited". Once again, this list is not definitive, and you are recommended to use the Publication Manual when documenting your own work. The bolded type indicates a word that must be present in the entry, and the page number(s) where you can find detailed information is in parentheses beside the heading.

Book-Single Author/Corporation (123-127)

1. (Author's last name, year, p. page number)
e.g. (Cruikshank, 1998, p. 139)

2. From Title of the book (p. page number), by author's initials and last name, year of publication, city of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. From The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory (p. 139), by J. Cruikshank, 1998, Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

3. Author's last name, initials/Name of corporation. (year). Title of the book (edition/volume number, if given). City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. Cruikshank, J. (1998). The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Note: most titles require capitalisation of only the first letter of the first word. The only exception is the title of periodicals for which you should follow regular capitalisation rules.

Note: if there is only one page, then p is used instead of pp.

Book-Article or Chapter (126-127)

1. (Author's last name, year, p. page number/chap. chapter number)
e.g. (Ricou, 1990, p. 296)

2. From Title of the article, in Title of the book (p. page number/chap. chapter number), by author's initials and last name, date, city of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. From No Writing at all Here: Review Notes on Writing Native, in Native Writers and Canadian Writing (p. 296), by L.R. Ricou, 1990, Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

3. Author's last name, initials. (year). Title of the article. In editor's initials and last name (Ed.), Title of the book (p. page number/chap. chapter number). City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. Ricou, L.R., (1990). No Writing at all Here: Review Notes on Writing Native. In W.H. New (Ed.). Native Writers and Canadian Writing (pp. 294-301). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Periodical without Continuous Pagination (119-123)

1. (Author's last name, year, p. page number)
(O'Brien, 1998, p. 176)

2. From "Title of the article," by Author's initials and last name, year, Title of the Periodical, Volume number, p. page number.
e.g. From "The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism," by S. O'Brien, 1998, ARIEL 29, p. 176.

3. Author's last name, initials. (year, month day). Title of the article. Title of the Periodical, volume number (issue number), first page number- last page number.
e.g. O'Brien, Susie. (1998, April). The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism. ARIEL 29 (2), 159- 183.


Online Sources

1. (Author's last name/Title of the article, year, par. paragraph number)
e.g. (Allen, 1996, par. 3)

2. From "Title of the article," by Author's initials and last name, year, Title of the Full Work [On-line], volume number Available: site/path/file, access date.
e.g. From "The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education in B.C.: An Outcomes Assessment," by Robert C. Allen, 1996, Robert C. Allen, Department of Economics, University of British Columbia [On-line] Available:  April 5, 1999.

3. Author's last name, initials. (year). Title of the article. Title of the Full Work [On-line], volume number Available: site/path/file. [Access date].
e.g. Allen, Robert C. (1996). The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education in B.C.: An Outcomes Assessment. Robert C. Allen, Department of Economics, University of British Columbia [On-line] Available: [April 5, 1999).

 

CHICAGO STYLE

The Chicago style of documentation is the most flexible style included in this guide. It can be used in almost any discipline. It is most notably used in the humanities and social sciences. You can find The Chicago Manual of Style at Koerner Library (Reference), call number Z.253.U69 1993.

The main difference between this style and the others is that titles are italicised rather than underlined. As well, all titles-except for the titles of periodicals-capitalise only the first letter in the first word. The list of references at the end of the paper can be titled "Works Cited", "Literature Cited", "Sources Cited", or "References". When using the Chicago style, you do not need to double space the entries, and all entries should be in alphabetical order. Top

Book-Single Author/Corporation (651-652)

1. (Author's last name, date)
e.g. (Cruikshank, 1998)

2. Author's first and last names, Title of the book (City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year).
e.g. Julie Cruikshank, The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1998).

3. Author's last name, first name or initials/Name of Corporation. Year of publication. Title of the book. Edition number ed. (if given). City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. Cruikshank, Julie. 1998. The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Note: for scientific papers, use the initials rather than the full first names. Also, in the footnotes, the first line should be indented 2-3 spaces, and following lines of the same footnote should be flush with the left margin.

Book-Article or Chapter (663-664)

1. (Author's last name date, pt./sec./fig./page number/app.)
e.g. (Ricou, L.R. 1990, 296)

2. Author's first and last names, "Title of the article/chapter," pt./sec./fig./page number/app. of Title of the book. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher, year.
e.g. L.R. Ricou, "No Writing at all Here: Review Notes on Writing Native," 296 Native Writers and Canadian Writing. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 1990.

3. Author's last name, first name/initials. Year. Title of the article/chapter. In Title of the book, edited by First name/intials and last name. City of publication and abbreviation for state, province, or country: publisher.
e.g. Ricou, L.R. 1990. No Writing at all Here: Review Notes on Writing Native. In Native Writers and Canadian Writing, edited by W.H. New. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Periodical without Continuous Pagination (672)

1. (Author's last name date volume number: page number)
e.g. (O'Brien 1998 29 2: 176)

2. Author's first and last names, "Title of the article," Title of the Periodical Volume number (date): page number.
e.g. Susie O'Brien, "The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism," ARIEL 29 (April 1998): 176.

3. Author's last name, first name/initials. Year. Title of the article. Title of the Periodical. Volume number, issue: first page number- last page number.
e.g. O'Brien, Susie. 1998. The Place of America in an Era of Postcolonial Imperialism. ARIEL. 29,2: 159-183.

The Chicago Style does not yet have a definitive way of documenting on-line sources. They do recommend that you use the MLA style until the next edition of The Chicago Manual of Style comes out.

APPENDIX B: U.B.C CALENDAR POLICY ON PLAGIARISM

The following are extracts of the relevant passages on plagiarism from the "Academic Regulations" section of the University of British Columbia's 1998/99 Calendar; you can consult it at http://www.students.ubc.ca.

Offences
Misconduct subject to penalty includes, but is not limited to, the following offences:


1. Plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct in which an individual submits or presents the work of another person as his or her own. Scholarship quite properly rests upon examining and referring to the thoughts and writings of others. However, when excerpts are used in paragraphs or essays, the author must be acknowledged through footnotes or other accepted practices. Substantial plagiarism exists when there is no recognition given to the author for phrases, sentences, and ideas of the author incorporated in an essay. Complete plagiarism exists when an entire essay is copied from an author, or composed by another person, and presented as original work. Students in doubt as to what constitutes a case of plagiarism should consult their instructor.


2. Submitting the same essay, presentation, or assignment more than once whether the earlier submission was at this or another institution, unless prior approval has been obtained.


Penalties

The penalties which may be imposed, singly or in combination, for any of the above offences may include, but are not limited to, the following:


1. A failing grade or mark of zero in the course, examination, or assignment in which the academic misconduct occurred.
2. Suspension from the University for a specified period of time, or indefinitely. Students will not receive credit for courses taken at another institution during a suspension.
3. Reprimand, with letter placed in student's file.
4. Restitution in the case of damage to, or removal or unauthorized use of, property.
5. A notation on the student's permanent record of the penalty imposed.

Warning
1. The penalty for substantial or complete plagiarism, or for cheating, normally is suspension from the University.

 

APPENDIX C: FURTHER EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM

1. Complete Plagiarism:

ORIGINAL:

From: Benjamin Hoff's book The Tao of Pooh, published by the MLA, 1995.

According to Lao-Tse, the more man interfered with the natural balance produced and governed by the universal laws, the further away the harmony retreated into the distance. The more forcing, the more trouble. Whether heavy or light, wet or dry, fast or slow, everything had its own nature already within it, which could not be violated without causing difficulties.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

Lao-Tse, the author of the famous Tao Te Ching, believed that the more man interfered with the natural balance produced and governed by the universal laws, the further away the harmony retreated into the distance. The more forcing, the more trouble. Whether heavy or light, wet or dry, fast or slow, everything had its own nature already within it, which could not be violated without causing difficulties.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

According to Benjamin Hoff, Lao-Tse believed that "the more man interfered with the natural balance produced and governed by the universal laws, the further away the harmony retreated into the distance. The more forcing, the more trouble" (4). This is the main tenet of Taoism, from which most of the key beliefs in this philosophy have developed.

In the plagiarised version, although the first sentence is somewhat changed, the body of the paragraph is identical to the original author's, and no credit is given. To remedy this, quotation marks are used to indicate a direct quotation, and the author's name is given so that you can flip to the Works Cited page and find full information about the source.

2. Paraphrasing (reckless plagiarism):

ORIGINAL:

From: James Goodby's book Europe Undivided, published by the US Institute of Peace, 1998.

The starting point for the Clinton administration's review of policy toward the Ukraine was the Lisbon Protocol, which required that Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan eliminate all the nuclear weapons located on their territories.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION 1:

The Lisbon Protocol, which required Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan to eliminate their nuclear weapons holdings, was the starting point for the Clinton administration's review of policy toward Ukraine.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION 2:

Clinton began his review of policy with the Lisbon Protocol, which made three former Soviet Republics destroy the nuclear weapons in their powers.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

When the Clinton administration came into power, it was necessary to perform a "review of policy" (Goodby 78) regarding Ukraine. According to James Goodby, the first step was to rid Ukraine and two other surrounding countries, Belarus and Kazakstan, of their nuclear weapons. This was part of what was known as the Lisbon Protocol.

This type of plagiarism is simple to correct: add an in-text citation, footnote, or endnote that can direct the reader to your source. It is also important to note that although the form and style differ between the original and the plagiarised version (#2), changing the form and style does not in itself make the document free of plagiarism, although it is a necessary part of documentation. To create a document free of plagiarism, you have to acknowledge and evaluate your sources.

3. Plagiarism in footnotes:

ORIGINAL:

From Alisa Harrison's article "Canada's Acceptance of Refugee American Blacks 1793-1863: Major Player or Major Myth Maker?" in The Seed, published by the Canadian Studies Students' Association of UBC, 1998.

One major area in which racism against blacks was manifested in Canada was in access to education. In 1850 the government of Canada West passed the Common School Act. This legislation ensured that Upper Canadian schools would be segregated, ostensibly to protect blacks from white hostility. In fact, this was frank racism thinly veiled by paternalism. This Act made it legal to establish separate black schools: any group of five (later amended to 12) black families could ask their school board for a separate school. This was later altered to allow school boards to 'grant' blacks separate schools even when no request had been made, and to make attendance at these schools compulsory (Bramble 77). These were often called "Select Schools" -- "the white children were selected in, and the black were selected out" (Drew 342).

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

There were huge problems of racism within the school system in 19th century Canada. The Common School Act was passed in 1850, which stated that black children could have a separate school, and which was later amended to state that attendance was mandatory at "Select Schools" in which "the white children were selected in, and the black children were selected out" (Drew 342).

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

There were huge problems of racism within the school system in 19th century Canada. The Common School Act was passed in 1850, which stated that black children could have a separate school, and which was later amended to state that attendance was mandatory (Bramble 77 qtd. in Harrison 14) at "Select Schools" in which "the white children were selected in, and the black children were selected out" (Drew 342 qtd. in Harrison 14).

There are a lot of problems with the plagiarised version of this example. The most obvious one is that the original author (Harrison) is not credited. As well, the quotation in the plagiarised work is taken from Harrison's work, rather than from the source that Harrison used. The author of the plagiarised version should have done his/her own research rather than relying on someone else's. Finally, there is a reference missing in the plagiarised work: the original drew on Linda Bramble's work as well as Benjamin Drew's, yet the author of the plagiarised work fails to note this. To correct the plagiarised version, the author would have to do his/her own research (although using "qtd. in" is also acceptable) as well as document properly.

4. Plagiarism in Footnotes Further Example:

ORIGINAL:

From: Joseph Gibaldi's book MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, published by the MLA , 1995, page 26.

Derived from the Latin word plagiarius ("kidnapper"), plagiarism refers to a form of cheating that has been defined as "the false assumption of authorship: the wrongful act of taking the product of another person's mind, and presenting it as one's own" (Alexander Lindey, Plagiarism and Originality [New York: Harper, 1952] 2). To use another person's ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source is to plagiarize. Plagiarism, then, constitutes intellectual theft and often carries severe penalties, ranging from failure in a course to expulsion from school.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

Plagiarism constitutes intellectual theft, and can incur severe penalties. The word plagiarism, derived from the Latin plagiarius ("kidnapper"), has been defined as "the false assumption of authorship…taking the product of another person's mind, and presenting it as one's own" (Lindey 2). This includes using another person's words or ideas without acknowledging your source.

The majority of the plagiarised version exemplifies common knowledge: that plagiarism is intellectual theft, can incur severe penalties, and is derived from plagiarius (Latin for kidnapper), are all facts that are all common knowledge. The problem with the plagiarised version is the use of the quotation from the original. The writer should have found the quotation for himself in Lindey's book. If the writer had done his/her own research, he/she might even have found a more suitable quotation.

5. Piecemeal Plagiarism:

ORIGINALS:

From: Stella Revard's book The War in Heaven: Paradise Lost and the Tradition of Satan's Rebellion, published by Cornell University Press, 1980.

The Renaissance poems and plays that describe the war in Heaven are for the most part more explicit than their medieval precursors. War is not only alluded to, [but] it is [also] delineated in detail. Undoubtedly many Renaissance writers are merely developing those hints of warfare inherent in the medieval poems. Others, however, seem to be developing a new tradition.

From: Michael Lieb's book Poetics of the Holy, published by University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Peace was valued by Milton as much as anyone in the Renaissance, and yet this love of peace and detestation of war should not blind one to the extent to which Milton was imbued with the fervor of what he considered to be a just war [in reference to the English civil war] undertaken in a righteous cause.

PLAGIARIZED WORK:

Renaissance writers developed hints of warfare inherent in medieval poems. Milton was one such Renaissance writer, and although he valued peace, he was nevertheless imbued with the fervor of the just English civil war because it was undertaken for a righteous cause.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

Milton played a significant role in the English civil wars, a fact that cannot be denied in light of his increasing disinclination for war, according to Michael Lieb (265-266). Interestingly, although Milton was becoming disenchanted with war in his writing (as in Paradise Lost), other writers during the Renaissance wrote much more explicitly about warfare than previously (Revand 144). Perhaps it was the increasing awareness of warfare brought on by the civil wars that spurred these writers to explore the causes and effects of warfare much more deeply.

In the plagiarised work, the writing of the original has been rearranged and altered a little, resulting in a paraphrased work with no references. The acceptable version credits both authors while connecting the lines of thought in a unique way and tying the ideas into the essay.

6. Internet plagiarism:

ORIGINAL:

From: Internet source: Weekly Wisdom and Trusted Tips on the Old Farmer's Almanac website, www.almanac.com/column/index.html, 10 October 1998.

October's flower, the daisy-like marigold (Tagetes), has been called Mary's gold and bride of the sun. Its yellows, rusts, and golds echo fall's natural colors. Although it can tolerate cool temperatures, it won't stand for freezing. The malodorous annual is useful in borders to repel pests. For the same reason, you may choose to omit it from your bouquets, unless you have one of the newer, odorless varieties.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

When fall comes, the marigold is beautiful for its earthy tones of yellows, rusts, and golds. It is a malodorous annual that is best used in borders for repelling pests, but you can also get a new odorless variety which allows you to use marigolds, or bride of the sun, in bouquets.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION #1 (COMMON KNOWLEDGE):

The marigold is best used for keeping pests away from your other plants. As well, the colors blend into the natural fall scenery, creating a border that is not only pleasing to the eye, but also very useful.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION #2:

According to the article Weekly Wisdom and Trusted Tips on the Old Farmer's Almanac website, Tagetes, commonly known as the marigold, is also known as "bride of the sun" and "Mary's gold", and it is best used for keeping pests away from your other plants, due to its odor. As well, the colors blend into the natural fall scenery, creating a border that is not only pleasing to the eye, but also very useful.

In the plagiarised version, the words of the author are taken, although they are moved around, and there is no indication of where this information came from. In the first acceptable version, the author is stating general knowledge: that the marigold smells bad and keeps pests away, and that it blooms in fall colours, are facts that nearly every gardener is aware of. In the second acceptable version, you are given the name of the web site, and you can use this to find the address on the Works Cited page.

7. More Internet Plagiarism

ORIGINAL:

From: Internet source Jane Roux Collection, published by The Canadian Art Web, 27 November 1998, found at: www.canadianartweb.com/janeroux.htm.

In 1984 Jane [Roux, Canadian artist,] moved to the Okanagan and in subsequent years had significant artistic input into the photographic business she and her husband owned and operated in Osoyoos. During these years she developed her artistic style which, with strong European influence, interprets her love of nature, home, and travel.

PLAGIARIZED VERSION:

During the time spent in the Okanagan, Jane Roux put her artistic input into the photographic business that her husband and herself owned. This period helped to develop her style, which interprets her love of nature, home, and travel.

ACCEPTABLE VERSION:

Jane Roux's artistic style developed during her residence in the Okanagan, according to the Internet article Jane Roux Collection. She helped out with the photography business that was jointly owned by herself and her husband. This experience led her to develop her "love of nature, home, and travel" within the context of "strong European influence."

In the plagiarised version, very specific information is taken about the artist Jane Roux, without a citation to indicate where this information came from. As well, some the phrases are identical to those of the original. The acceptable version credits the source, so the reader can find the information on their own. As well, although there are borrowed phrases, there are quotation marks around these phrases to indicate that they were taken directly from the original text.

8. Using Either the Same or Similar Essays for Two Assignments

ASSIGNMENT #1:

Written for a class on Canadian Society:

Some people drive over bridges in Rolls Royce's, while others sleep under bridges at night. Some people have Emily Carr paintings for their living room walls, while others have no walls because they have no homes. Canadian society is unequal. Some are rich, while others are poor. Some people understand this inequality as an individual continuum from the richest to the poorest Canadian. Others understand it as an unbalanced mosaic from a small group of rich families to a large mass of disadvantaged individuals. In understanding inequality in this country, is the perspective of an individualized hierarchy a more powerful lens than the perspective of a class or strata based society?

UNNACCEPTABLE VERSION (ASSIGNMENT #2):

Written for a class on Social Inequality:

Canadians differ in the degrees of power and privilege they enjoy. Some are rich and famous while others are weak and disadvantaged. Social class offers an analytic perspective highlighting struggles between groups of Canadians, a rich class, a middle class, and a lower class. Social hierarchy accepts the notion of a class society and views inequality as individual differences in power and privilege. This essay explores the strengths and weaknesses of these competing perspectives on the organisation of social inequality.

You can see that the premises of these two essays are identical. If one student submitted both these assignments without permission from the instructors of both classes, then that student could be considered a plagiarist.


WORKS CITED

Burkle-Young, Francis A. The Research Guide for the Digital Age: A New Handbook to Research and Writing for the Serious Student. Lanham:University Press of America, 1997.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writer of Research Papers. 4th Edition. New York: MLA, 1995.

Goodby, James E. Europe Undivided. Washington: US Institute of Peace, 1998.

Harrison, Alisa Y. "Canada's Assistance of Refugee American Blacks 1793-1863: Major Player or Major Myth Maker?" The Seed. 2 (1998): 2-23.

Hellstern, Mark. The History Student Writer's Manual. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Hoff, Benjamin. The Tao of Pooh. New York: Penguin, 1982.

Jane Roux Collection. 25 November 1998. Canadian Art Web. 27 November 1998 <http://www.canadianartweb.com/janeroux.htm>.

Levine, Lawrence. Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, 1986.

Lieb, Michael. Poetics of the Holy. USA: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

List, Carla. Introduction to Library Research. 2nd ed. College custom series. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

MLA Style. MLA. 9 July 1998 <http://www.mla.org/main_stl.htm>.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: APA, 1994.

Revard, Stella Purce. The War in Heaven. London: Cornell, 1980.

Rodman, Lilita. Technical Communication. 2nd ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1996.

The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

University of British Columbia. Calendar 98/99. Vancouver: Registrar's Office, 1998.

Venne, Sharon. "Understanding Treaty 6: An Indigenous Perspective." Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference. Ed. Michael Ash. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.

Weekly Wisdom and Trusted Tips. Old Farmer's Almanac. Internet. 10 October 1998.

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